The Soldier in Later Medieval England

Editorial Principles

Only royal pardons enrolled on the Chancery Rolls which make explicit reference either to service in the 1345 or 1359 expedition have been included in the databases.

The 1345 database includes two additional attributes/fields of ‘Conditional’ and ‘Discharge’. The former indicates whether the pardon is granted on the condition that the recipient serves for one year at their own expense, and the latter indicates whether the recipient was subsequently discharged of their obligation to fulfil that former condition.

The 1359 database includes the additional field of ‘Retinue Captain’, which provides the identity of the retinue captain under whom the pardon recipient served. The database also includes records of ‘renewed’ pardons, which were issued sometime after the corresponding original pardon had been granted.

Forenames have been modernised, ‘Hervicus’, for example, is rendered as Harvey. Surnames are given in their original form, as are place names, even when names can be modernised with a degree of certainty. Thus, Thomas Goldsmith of Shrewsbury is rendered as Thomas ‘Goldesmyth of Shrouesbury’ and, similarly, the place of origin of his alleged victim is given as ‘Bruggenorth’ rather than Bridgnorth. Towns recorded in their Latin form have been translated, thus ‘Nova Sarum’ and ‘Nova Castrum sub Lymam’ are rendered Salisbury and Newcastle-under-Lyme, respectively.

Names of Retinue Captains have been given in their modern form, with their corresponding titles at the time of the pardons’ issuance. John of Gaunt, for example, is recorded as earl of Richmond, rather than duke of Lancaster. Names of captains of obscure origins, however, such as ‘Peter de Boubery’, or ‘John Botetourt’ are recorded in their original form.

Counties are given in their modern form, but for instances where a distinction between county and town of the same name cannot be made, the original form is retained. John Skynnere, for example, is of ‘Norhampton’ rather than ‘Northamptonshire.

For Locality of Crime, the location of crime is followed by the corresponding ‘type of crime (in parentheses). For example, Brunnesle (Rape), or Screveton (Burglary). Where more than one crime of the same ‘type’ has been committed at more than one place, the location of crime is followed by the surname of the victim (in parentheses). For example, Carleton (Elkyngton, Malet).